Corruption is caused by three major problems: dishonest persons, gaps in legal regulation and insufficient processes. Therefore, both in analysing the current situation and creating anti-corruption measures, they should be grouped by corruption issue they target.


The major principles to be followed by business striving for creation of anti-corruption environment are:

  1. Publicity and openness;
  2. Transparency and clear procedures;
  3. Honesty;
  4. Loyalty and reliability;
  5. Awareness and integrity;
  6. Encouragement to refrain from taking and giving bribes as well as to report and show zero tolerance for dishonest behaviour;
  7. "Four eyes" principle for control and monitoring[69].


Further on this Handbook discusses the most commonly-used corruption prevention methods and the aspects of their application:

  1. The role of management in anti-corruption activities;
  2. Organisation's anti-corruption policy;
  3. Assessment of risks of corruption, which may be encountered by an organisation in its business environment;
  4. Investigation of tolerance for corruption and unethical behaviour among employees;
  5. Assessment of honesty and loyalty of prospective employees;
  6. Anti-corruption education for staff;
  7. Codes of Ethics and Conduct;
  8. Policy for managing conflicts of interest;
  9. Gifts and representation policy;
  10. Policy for charitable donations and sponsorships;
  11. Lobbying policy;
  12. Reporting system and whistleblower protection;
  13. Checks on business partners;
  14. Transparency and accountability to the public;
  15. Organisation of anti-corruption activities;
  16. Preparation, implementation and review of anti-corruption programmes;
  17. Maturity assessment of the organisation's corruption prevention system.

[69] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2purKpLrTR4